„Kirakunk táblákat, hogy csúnyán beszélni tilos”. A javítás mint gyakorlat és mint téma diákok és tanáraik metanyelvében [Repair as communication practice – repair as discourse topic. A multi-faceted investigation of Hungarian school metalanguage]. Dunajská Streda: Gramma, 2012. 286 pp. ISBN 978-80-971114-4-1 (online); ISBN 978-80-969556-7-1 (printed) || Summary in English.
CHSM-IC: Corpus of Hungarian School Metalanguage – Interview Corpus.
Published as a part of the CESAR (Central and South-East European Resources) project, under the supervision of Tamás Váradi. || The corpus is available online || Summary
Representation and videography in linguistic landscape studies (with Robert A. Troyer). Linguistic Landscape: an international journal 2017/3, pp. 56–77. || On the publisher's website
Investigating visual practices in educational settings: schoolscapes, language ideologies and organizational cultures (with Petteri Laihonen). In: Marilyn Martin-Jones & Deirdre Martin (eds.), Researching multilingualism: Critical and ethnographic approaches. Routledge, 2017, pp. 121–138. || Further information on the publisher's website || Summary
In our chapter, we provide an overview of approaches to the study of linguistic landscapes and semiotic practices in educational settings, taking account of both theory and method. We also illustrate this area of research with reference to schoolscapes in Eastern Europe. The field of linguistic landscape studies has various roots and methodological traditions. In this account we mainly deal with schoolscapes, and we discuss research that focuses on schools, their classrooms, their foyers and on activities taking place within school walls.
We consider the investigation of schoolscapes to be relevant to research into the visual socialization of children, into the ways in which they are oriented to visual literacy and into the visual literacy practices of both children and adults. That is, we view visual literacy not only as the ability to interpret visual signs, but also as a social practice – one in which teachers and students exercise agency in engaging in visual communication in educational settings. We also focus on language ideologies reflected in schoolscapes. We argue that, like classroom interaction and other educational practices, schoolscapes can also be analyzed as displays or materialization of the ‘hidden curriculum’ regarding language values.Hide summary
The Management of Diversity in Schoolscapes: an analysis of Hungarian practices. Apples – Journal of Applied Language Studies 2015/1, pp. 23–51. || Full text
Finding no words: Exclusion in Academia. Acatiimi 2016/4, pp. 42–43. || Full text
Understanding Finnish education: science popularization and scholarly work as intertwined activities. Kieli, koulutus ja yhteiskunta, 2015/September.
A corpus-based analysis of language ideologies in Hungarian school metalanguage. Research in Corpus Linguistics 2013/1, pp. 65–79. || Full text
Nyelvi tájkép kisebbségben és többségben. Egy új kutatási területről [Minority and Majority Linguistic Landscape: A New Field of Research] (with Csilla Bartha and Petteri Laihonen). Pro Minoritate 2013/3, pp. 13–28. || Full text | Abstract in English
Az iskolai metanyelvi szocializáció mechanizmusa. (Terminushasználat és cselekvés) [The dynamics of metalinguistic socialization at school (Terminology use and action)]. Anyanyelv-pedagógia 2013/3 || Full text
Javításról alkotott narratívák és nyelvi ideológiák kérdőíves diskurzusokban ['Narratives and ideologies on repair emerging in questionnaire discourses']. Nyelvtudományi Közlemények (journal of Research Institute for Linguistics Hungarian Academy of Sciences) 2010–2011 [2012!], pp. 147–198. || Full text
Metanyelvi diskurzusok magyar iskolákban [Metalinguistic discourses in Hungarian schools]. In: Géza Balázs, Ágnes Veszelszki (eds.), Nyelv és kultúra – kulturális nyelvészet. [Proceedings of the 2010 Budapest Conference “Culture and Language – Cultural Linguistics”.] Budapest: Inter–Magyar Szemiotikai Társaság–Palimpszeszt, 2012. pp. 349–355. || Summary
Ideológiák a nyelvi hibajavítás hátterében? Metanyelvi elemzések [Do Ideologies Conduct Repair? Analysis of Metalanguage]. In: Kornélia Hires-László, Zoltán Karmacsi, Anita Márku (eds.), Nyelvi mítoszok, ideológiák, nyelvpolitika és nyelvi emberi jogok Közép-Európában elméletben és gyakorlatban. A 16. Élőnyelvi Konferencia előadásai. [Proceedings of the 2010 Beregovo conference on Language Ideologies.] Budapest–Beregovo: Tinta–Hodinka Institute, 2011 [2012!]. pp. 174–183. || Full text (summary in English on page 174).
Nyelvi hibajavítások tranzakcionális elemzése [Correction of language use and TA]. In: Márta Illés-Molnár, Zsuzsa Kaló, Andrea Parapatics (eds.), Félúton 5. Az ötödik Félúton konferencia (2009) kiadványa. [Proceedings of a PhD conference.] Budapest: ELTE BTK Nyelvtudományi Doktori Iskola, 2010. pp. 1–15. || Full text (summary in English on page 15).
30 May 2017. Organizer and chair of the panel discussion “Co-exploring visual practices in educational settings” on Methods Festival, University of Jyväskylä
2 Dec 2016. “Multilingual schoolscape – Multilingual learning environment” project workshop on co-located schools, University of Jyväskylä (co-organizer, chair: Kati Kajander). || A report on the event
30 Sep 2016. Researchers’ Night, University of Jyväskylä: “Opening Learning Environment: the school of the future”, in cooperation with Valteri School Onerva, Jyväskylä. || Report on the event
21 June 2016. “Being a Marie Curie Research Fellow in applied language studies: Opportunities for junior researchers in Jyväskylä.” CoDesigns conference, University of Jyväskylä.
15–16 June 2016. “Studying the visual and material dimensions of education and learning.” Colloquium at Sociolinguistics Symposium 21, University of Murcia, Spain. || Abstracts of Day 1 || Abstracts of Day 2
13 May 2016. Exploratory Workshop for Participatory Visual Methods, University of Jyväskylä (co-organizer in cooperation with Centre for Applied Language Studies, Department of Arts and Culture Studies and Department of Languages at JY) || Report on the event
23 March 2016. “Concluding ‘Finding own words’: a Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship project in Applied Language Studies” seminar, University of Jyväskylä, Finland. || Report on the event
13 November 2015. “Colloquium on schoolscape research: theory, method and practice” at the AFinLA Autumn Symposium, Helsinki, Finland (with Petteri Laihonen).
8–9 October 2015. Contextualizing linguistic diversity in institutional settings, University of Tromsø, Norway (with Hilde Sollid and Florian Hiss).
7 October 2015. Data seminar for researchers, University of Tromsø, Norway: “Pictures as data” (invited contribution, with Hilde Sollid).
24 October 2014. Workshop on interview data collection and analysis (invited contribution, with Petteri Laihonen). Research seminar for PhD students, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
23 September 2014. Informal workshop on research funding (invited contribution, with Petteri Laihonen). University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
13 May 2014. Workshop on research funding (invited contribution, with Petteri Laihonen). 6th AILA-Europe Junior Researcher Meeting in Applied Linguistics, Jyväskylä, Finland.
30 May 2017. Methods Festival, Jyväskylä: What is visual ethnography? (invited contribution)
30 May 2017. Methods Festival, Jyväskylä: Language Learning in the Linguistic Landscape (as a panelist)
18 May 2017. XLIV Finnish Conference of Linguistics, Jyväskylä: Translanguaging as playful subversion of a monolingual classroom language norm (with Teppo Jakonen and Petteri Laihonen)
30 March 2017. 9th Linguistic Landscapes International Workshop: ’Movement and Immobilities’, Esch-Belval, Luxemburg: Transforming schoolscapes in co-located institutions: the consequences of moving together with regards to learning environments and organizational cultures (with Petteri Laihonen)
29 March 2017. 9th Linguistic Landscapes International Workshop: ’Movement and Immobilities’, Esch-Belval, Luxemburg: Erasing hatred from the streets: a mobile application transforming pedestrians’ LL perceptions during a xenophobic campaign in Hungary
2 December 2016. “Multilingual schoolscape – Multilingual learning environment” project workshop on co-located schools, Jyväskylä: Towards new multilingual learning environments: affordances in the schoolscapes of co-located schools (with Petteri Laihonen, Riikka Alanen, Kati Kajander and Hannele Dufva)
11 November 2016. AFinLA Autumn Symposium, Tampere: Together: New language ideologies and practices in the learning environment of two co-located schools (with Petteri Laihonen, Riikka Alanen, Kati Kajander and Hannele Dufva)
26 October 2016. ‘The other side of the coin’ conference on bilingual education, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia (invited panelist in a round table)
24 October 2016. Researcher meeting, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia: Sharing premises, changing practices: language ideologies of a Swedish and a Finnish medium school community in reflection to their co-created schoolscape (invited contribution)
14 October 2016. Uralo-indogermanica II conference, Narva, Estonia: Co-creating agency and diversity in the linguistic landscape of education: a case of two co-located schools (keynote)
30 September 2016. Researchers’ Night, Jyväskylä: Diversity and accessible learning environment: visual and material approaches to education research
21 June 2016. Co-Designs conference (33rd Summer School of Applied Language Studies), Jyväskylä: Co-designing educational spaces for languages: reproduction, correction and keeping order (with Petteri Laihonen)
15 June 2016. Sociolinguistics Symposium 21, Murcia, Spain: Introduction to the colloquium Studying the visual and material dimensions of education and learning (with Petteri Laihonen)
13 May 2016. Co-exploring school environments with local community members: a joint analysis of visual materials (with Kristiina Skinnari). Exploratory Workshop for Participatory Visual Methods. Jyväskylä, Finland.
29 April 2016. Revisualizing the Linguistic Landscape with Videographic Methodologies (with Robert A. Troyer). 8th Linguistic Landscapes International Workshop, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
14 April 2016. English schoolscapes in Finland and Hungary (with Petteri Laihonen). Education Research Spring Colloquium, Jyväskylä, Finland.
23 March 2016. Results of the project and personal experience. Concluding ‘Finding own words’: a Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship project in Applied Language Studies seminar, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
11 February 2016. Globalization and education. Guest lecture at Tallinn University, Estonia.
10 February 2016. Internationalization at universities. Guest lecture at Tallinn University, Estonia.
8 February 2016. Culture and diversity in schools: a linguistic landscape approach. Guest lecture at Tallinn University, Estonia.
4 February 2016. Studying local, national and global practices in education: a linguistic landscape approach. Globalization and social justice seminar, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
26 January 2016. Linguistic landscapes, cityscapes, schoolscapes and language education. JULIET seminar, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
15 and 17 December 2015. On schoolscapes: approaches and perspectives. Part 1, 2. Researcher meeting, University of Leeds, United Kingdom.
18 November 2015. Schoolscapes and belonging (with Petteri Laihonen). Researcher meeting, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
17 November 2015. Board games in school: ideologies and interactional practices. Sharing the Play seminar, Jyväskylä, Finland.
13 November 2015. Introduction: on theory and methods of schoolscape studies (with Petteri Laihonen). AFinLA Autumn Symposium, Helsinki, Finland.
12 November 2015. Co-constructing the global, the national and the local: schoolscapes in interaction. Guest lecture at Tallinn University, Estonia.
5 November 2015. Co-exploring school spaces: using the ‘tourist guide technique’ in research. Centre for Applied Studies Workshop on Multimodality, Jyväskylä, Finland.
23 October 2015. Scoolscape in interaction: an English lesson (presentation in the data session). The Language-Gesture Connection workshop, Oulu, Finland.
8 October 2015. Co-constructing and experiencing linguistic diversity in educational spaces in Hungary: An interaction-oriented language ideological study.Contextualizing linguistic diversity in institutional settings workshop, Tromsø, Norway.
7 October 2015. Pictures as data (invited opening lecture). Pictures as data data seminar, Tromsø, Norway.
6 October 2015. Interviewing children (invited lecture). Researcher meeting, Tromsø, Norway.
19 September 2015. What can the schoolscape offer for becoming multilingual? Affordances in the learning environment (invited keynote lecture with Petteri Laihonen). Mercator–LEARNMe Conference on Minority Language Research, Educational practice and Policy. Revisiting Methodology, Learning and Established Concepts. Budapest, Hungary.
19 August 2015. Linguistic diversity in Hungarian majority and minority schoolscapes (with Petteri Laihonen). 12th International Congress for Finno-Ugric Studies, Oulu, Finland. || Abstract
6 June 2015. As we think we may teach: Ideologies on IT in the classroom. ISIS Summit 4 'The information society at the crossroads', Vienna, Austria. || Extended abstract
8 May 2015. Reading, reconstructing and interpreting the schoolscape: Working with the ‘tourist guide technique’. Linguistic Landscape 7 Workshop, Berkeley (California), United States of America. || Abstract
29 April 2015. Discourses of diversity in Hungarian and Finnish schools: A visual semiotic approach. Exploratory seminar on superdiversity and intersectionality, Jyväskylä, Finland.
9 April 2015. Jyväskyläläisen kielentutkimuksen yhteiskunnallisuus [The social impact of Jyväskylä language studies] (with Taina Saarinen and Mirja Tarnanen). Business meeting at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
20 Februrary 2015. ’Talking heads’ interviews. Data session in Conversation Analysis, Jyväskylä, Finland.Show more
14 November 2014. Investigating visual practices and ideologies in educational settings: schoolscapes, agency, affordances and English in Budapest and Jyväskylä (with Petteri Laihonen). AFinLA Congress ’Flows of language learning’, Jyväskylä, Finland. || Abstract
14 November 2014. Celebrities on education. The discursive reconstruction of learning communities. Nordic Interdisciplinary Conference on Discourse and Interaction (NorDIsCo) 3, Jyväskylä, Finland. || Abstract
11 November 2014. On the Hungarian discourse particle ’hát’ (with Petteri Laihonen). Workshop on affiliation in conversation (NorDisCo pre-conference workshop), Jyväskylä, Finland.
17 October 2014. ”Finding own words” A Marie Curie IEF project on Hungarian education. Language Campus Researcher Meeting, Jyväskylä, Finland.
14 October 2014. Linguistic landscape, affordances and language learning (with Hannele Dufva). Seminar Meeting in Applied Linguistics, Jyväskylä, Finland.
The extended use of IT devices has raised scholars’ awareness to its impact on the organization of classroom interactions. For example, Lotherington (2011) has emphasized the role of IT, multimedia, multimodality, collaborative communication, agentive participation and multitasking for a contemporary understanding of communicative competences.
In 2010 a video portal has been launched by a Hungarian teacher training college with a stated goal of sharing good practices, e.g. using IT in education. This site targets the training of future teachers. In my presentation, applying Conversation Analysis, I provide a multimodal description of videos selected from the corpus of this internet site (16.3 hrs). Editorial notes on this site suggest that the videos demonstrate how the use of IT devices revolutionize teaching, engage and motivate students and support group work. Based on the interactional analysis of the recordings, I argue that even though the use of IT is claimed to be the facilitator of student agency, the observed interactional practices are very teacher-centered, i.e. the teacher dominates and controls the verbal production of the students and their use of the IT devices. These observations uncover certain implicit ideologies on the roles and the process of education.
My study is part of a research project which investigates authoritative and democratic learning environments and targets the better understanding of the situated co-construction of agency and identities, and their significance in learning and teaching.
Lotherington, H. 2011. Pedagogy of multiliteracies: Rewriting Goldilocks. Routledge. Hide summary
6 September 2014. Authoritative and democratic educational policies in Hungary: An analysis of teachers’ and students’ narratives. Multidisciplinary Approaches in Language Policy and Planning conference, Calgary, Canada (Alberta).
5 June 2014. Finnish and Hungarian ideologies on linguistic diversity and multilingualism. Towards a comparative analysis. FINKA Symposium, Joensuu, Finland.
27 May 2014. Marie Curie Fellowship: personal experience. Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions info session, Tampere, Finland.
23 May 2014. Interactional organization of mainstream and alternative educational settings in Hungary. Social-interactional Approach to Learning Workshop, Jyväskylä, Finland.
21 May 2014. Hungarian educational policies from two perspectives: A comparison of researcher’s observations and the participants’ narratives. Language in Political, Ideological and Intercultural Relations Conference, Bratislava, Slovakia.
14 May 2014. Linguistic landscapes in education. Visual Culture, Mathematics, Education TEMPUS seminar, Jyväskylä, Finland.
13 May 2014. (Re)constructing the norms: Generic narratives in students’ metalinguistic dicourses. 6th AILA-Europe Junior Researcher Meeting in Applied Linguistics, Jyväskylä, Finland. || Summary
Recently, several studies investigate how students portray themselves while presenting their learning experiences in narratives. Certain studies (e.g. Aro 2012) emphasize that narrative reconstructions contain recycled fragments of metadiscourses the narrator previously participated in. Thus, analysis uncovers various traditions of speaking about learning as well.
The majority of the papers on students’ narratives deal with L2 education (e.g. Kalaja et al. 2008). In a similar manner, such analysis supports a better understanding of how children reconstruct interpersonal relations and social practices during L1 acquisition as well. The present paper analyses interactional data from an interview corpus collected by the author, containing 47.7 hours of recorded speech. In the interviews, students aged 6–11, 13–15 and 17–19 describe how they acquired certain variations of their L1 (Hungarian) and how they learned to regulate their own and their communication partners’ language use.
The present paper focuses on generic or iterative narratives (re)constructed by 6–11 year-old students in order to describe ”what happens typically or repeatedly” (Baynham 2011: 66). My analysis uncovers how children (re)construct the use of their linguistic repertoire while creating narratives on certain communicative events and their own role in them. Children often present themselves as agents who regularize language use and maintain norms, e.g. by correcting others’ language use. As part of the narratives, they often construct ideologies to defend their practice. These ideologies are closely linked to Hungarian prescriptivist traditions.
Aro, Mari 2012. Effects of authority: voicescapes in children’s beliefs about the learning of English. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 331–346.
Baynham, Mike 2011. Stance, positioning, and alignment in narratives of professional experience. Language in Society 63–74.
Kalaja, Paula–Vera Menezes–Ana Maria F. Barcelos (eds.) 2008. Narratives of Learning and Teaching EFL. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Hide summary
10 May 2014. Popularizing linguistics in the digital age. 41st Finnish Conference of Linguistics ’Language and linguistics in a technological world’, Turku, Finland. || Summary
The phenomenon what we call ‘science’ is constructed through various discursive practices. Using the approach of Topham (2009: 19–20), I conceptualize scientific knowledge as “part of a communicative process, involving appropriation, resistance and cultural contestation”. As Edwards (1993: 221) points out, the legitimacy and authenticity of scientific models and explanations are closely related to certain “public procedures”. With the advent of online communication, and particularly with the help of such collaboratively edited sites as Wikipedia, great masses can contribute to the manufacturing and the (re)distribution of knowledge, actively participating in scientific or science-related debates and discussions. Among other fields of science, this interactive technological and social environment has also an impact on linguistics.
In my paper, I will present the Hungarian online journal Nyelv és Tudomány (‘Language and Science’) which targets the popularization of linguistics. The authors and editors of the published articles thematize various topics, often related to current social and political developments and events (e.g. language and politics, linguistic rights of minority communities, changes in the regulation of education, etc.). Parallelly, the editorial board follows another agenda according to which certain articles systematically present specific issues in phonetics, semantics, syntax and other linguistic fields. The readers can also find articles on innovative methods used in language education and in linguistic research. Reflecting that Hungarian is one of the Finno-Ugric languages, there are many articles on Finno-Ugric languages and cultures, with a special regard to Finnish.
The authors of the articles and the members of the editorial board have qualifications in linguistics and/or in a relevant other field (e.g. history, sociology, etc.). However, the texts can be commented, liked and shared by any of the readers, including non-professionals. Quite often, readers initiate debates to which other readers, the author herself/himself and the members of the editorial board contribute. With the systematic CA and DA analysis of a collection of texts published in Nyelv és Tudomány, I will present several discursive practices through which language ideologies are co-constructed by the authors, the readers and the editors in these debates. The analysis will foreground different bases and positions of argumentation, with a special regard to the discursively constructed agency of the participants. These positions can seem to be different (e.g. ‘professional’ vs. ‘non-professional’), but the processes of their discursive construction is quite similar.
From another angle of analysis, I will present how such online journals as Nyelv és Tudomány can contribute to the social visibility and the self-positioning of linguists as professionals in the online culture of content production and consumption.
Edwards, D. 1993. But What Do Children Really Think? Discourse Analysis and Conceptual Content in Children’s Talk. Cognition and Instruction 3–4: 207–225.
Topham, Jonathan R. 2009. Rethinking the History of Science Popularization/Popular Science. – Faidra Papanepoulu et al. (eds.) Popularizing Science and Technology in the European Periphery, 1800–2000. 1–20. Burlington: Ashgate. Hide summary
11 April 2014. Popularizing the Jyväskylä Language Campus on a private Hungarian linguistics portal. Language Campus Researcher Meeting, Jyväskylä, Finland.
19 November 2013. Pre-school and early school socialization in Hungarian metalanguage. Seminar Meeting in Applied Linguistics, Jyväskylä, Finland.
Recent studies on students’ and teachers’ narratives have proved that the consideration of self-reflecting narratives supports the planning and the preparation of education-related activities (see e.g. Kalaja et al. 2008). Since previous studies generally focused on students’ stories on learning, the present paper emphasizes the importance of investigating teachers’ narratives. Playing an important role in the organization of school discourses, their self-positioning and self-evaluation can influence the performance of their students.
The present paper gives an insight into Hungarian teachers’ self-reflective practices, based on a collection of semi-structured research interviews recorded by the author in various Hungarian schools with 23 teachers. In these interviews, teachers of Hungarian grammar and literature present their teaching activity and they portray the students they teach as well (for previous Hungarian studies, see Duff 1995; Nahalka 2003; Szivák 2010). Using agency analysis, situated reconstructions of interpersonal relations will be investigated in the narratives. These dynamically modified (re)constructions are used as reference points while arguing for or against certain educational practices or evaluations.
As a case study, the present paper analyzes an interview recorded with a teacher who was a novice at her working place in the date of the interview. This analysis helps to understand the process during which teachers familiarize themselves with their institutional environment, and start to adapt their practices, and, what is more, the description of their practices to the expectations expressed by their superiors.
Duff, P. A. 1995. An ethnography of communication in immersion classrooms in Hungary. TESOL Quarterly 29: 505-537.
Kalaja, P., Menezes V. & Barcelos, A. M. F. (eds.) 2008. Narratives of Learning and Teaching EFL. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Nahalka, I. 2003. A nevelési nézetek kutatása [The investigation of concepts on education]. Iskolakultúra 5: 69–76.
Szivák, J. 2010. A reflektív gondolkodás fejlesztése [Developing reflective thinking]. Budapest: MATEHETSZ. Hide summary
8 November 2013. Linguistic Diversity in Schoolscapes in Hungary. Tromsø International Conference on Language Diversity, Tromsø, Norway. || Summary
The linguistic environment of formal education (ie. Schoolscape) reflects upon the linguistic and cultural diversity of a training institution. Inscriptions and cultural symbols placed on the façade and the walls of the school building are tools for orienting the choice between various cultural and linguistic values and ideologies (cf. Johnson 1980; Dagenais et al. 2009; Brown 2012; Laihonen 2012).
In school buildings, a dynamic and object-mediated negotiation of norms, controled by the communities learning and teaching in the building, is detectable. Objects placed by the directorate of the institution (e. g. the coat of arms and the flag of Hungary, the text of the national anthem, etc.) and other elements such as notice boards and tableaux – bought, or made by teachers or students themselves – exhibit and offer a wide range of cultural and linguistic norms, while transgressive signs as graffities can be interpreted as a manifestation of contestation. Tableaux for pedagogical purposes such as visual summaries of grammar or natural science topics play a central role in the above mentioned norm negotiation, because they can be used for the regulation of classroom discourses, displaying and visualizing the most important scientific, political and religious ideologies disseminated by the given institution. For example, in classrooms, tableaux summarizing spelling rules promote standardist language ideologies. As another example, illustrated and annotated maps displaying the most important scenes of cultivated Hungarian poets like János Arany, Sándor Petőfi or Miklós Radnóti highlight the linguistic norms followed by these eminent language users, whose formal prestige is extremely high in contemporary cultural discourses. Meanwhile, other language users as pop singers or rappers – highly cultivated by the students – do not have such a pubicity on the school walls: their lyrics is written on the wall or on the school bench as a graffiti, and their texts are very rarely analysed or presented during the school lessons. A third interesting manifestation of linguistic diversity is the visibility of languages other than Hungarian: as dominantly monoglot institutions, Hungarian elementary and secondary schools prefer the use of Hungarian, while foreign languages like English, German or French are present only in rooms for foreign language classes. Other policies are extremely rare and can be found mainly in immersion schools.
The present paper demonstrates the first results of my study started in 2013 in schools in Hungary, collecting data with a so-called tourist guide technique. That is, during the photography of signs, I interviewed a teacher guiding me through the building. My teacher guide made explanations on the choice of language, quotes, and other symbols. That is, the fieldworker and the interviewee co-construct ideologies on the environment.
The simultaneous analysis of photos and interview materials can be used for the investigation of the diversity and the interference of local, national and global identites, values, linguistic norms and ideologies of the given institution. The analyis follows the methods and theoretical implications of Discursive Social Psychology, Language Ideology and Conversation Analysis studies.
Brown, Kara D. 2012. The linguistic landscape of educational spaces: Language revitalization and schools in southeastern Estonia. In: H. Marten, D. Gorter & L. van Mensel (Eds.): Linguistic landscapes and minority languages. New York: Palgrave, 281–298.
Dagenais, Diane et al. 2009. Linguistic landscape and language awareness. In: E. Shohamy & D. Gorter (Eds.), Linguistic Landscape. Expanding the Scenery. London: Routledge, 253–269.
Johnson, Norris Brock 1980. The Material Culture of Public School Classroom: The Symbolic Integration of Local Schools and National Culture. Anthropology & Education Quarterly 11 (3), 173–190.
Laihonen, Petteri 2012. Nyelvi tájkép egy csallóközi és egy mátyusföldi faluban. Fórum Társadalomtudományi Szemle 14 (3), 27–49. Hide summary
30 October 2013. Dialogues, and dialogic thinking in the interpretation of interview data. Research seminar on superdiversity, Jyväskylä, Finland.
10 October 2013. The Linguistic Landscape of Educational Places in Hungary [Presentation at the data session]. Researching multilingualism – theory and practice, Jyväskylä, Finland.
18 September 2013. Agency in Hungarian school metalanguage: the case of ideology construction. Peripheral Multilingualism project – Discourse studies seminar on Ethnography, Jyväskylä, Finland.
18 January 2013. Corpus of Hungarian School Metalanguage (CHSM): A new tool for multi-faceted investigations. The Hungarian Language in the Digital Age conference, Headquarters of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary (presented at the poster session). || Handout
4 June 2012. Agency and socialization in metalanguage. A case study of Hungarian. 30th Jyväskylä Summer School of Applied Language Studies – “Insights into Applied Linguistics: languaging, agency and ecologies”, Jyväskylä, Finland. || Handout